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April / May 2022

Extension briefs for Extension briefs for April and May 2022

SA Fruit Journal: April / May 2022

By Hannes Bester, MC Pretorius, Wayne Mommsen, Coenraad Fraenkel, André Combrink, Catherine Savage, Natasha Jackson and Jan Landman (Citrus Research International)

Integrated pest management

(T.G. Grout, S.D. Moore and A. Manrakhan)

Phytosanitary pests

All the recommendations made in the Extension Briefs for February and March also apply to this period. Fruit fly control in citrus areas is critical due to phytosanitary concern associated with fruit fly pests. Under the Citrus Fruit Fly Management System (Citrus FFMS) good agricultural practices pertaining to fruit fly are mandatory for export of citrus to the EU, other than lemons and limes.

Fruit fly control should be initiated in mid-summer. In areas with historically high fruit fly numbers, control should be initiated as early as December of the previous year, particularly in those areas with mixed deciduous or mango and citrus cultivation. Control actions for fruit flies include the use of registered protein bait sprays and/or bait stations and orchard sanitation. Where Oriental fruit fly (OFF) is present, growers should also apply registered methyl eugenol-based Male Annihilation Technique (MAT) (e.g. Invader-b-Lok, a block impregnated with Chempac ME lure and malathion, or Static Spinosad ME). Monitoring numbers of fruit flies and false codling moth (FCM) is also critical. For Medfly, the threshold in a Capilure baited trap is four males per week, whilst for Natal or Cape fly the threshold in a Capilure baited trap is two males per week. The OFF Bactrocera dorsalis, is present in Limpopo, Mpumalanga, North-West and Gauteng provinces as well as in KwaZulu-Natal province, but not in the magisterial districts of Amajuba, uMgungundlovu, uMzinyathi, uThukela and Zululand. OFF is declared absent from the Western Cape, Eastern Cape, Northern Cape and Free State provinces. Surveillance monitoring of OFF using methyl eugenol baited traps is a requirement for phytosanitary registration of citrus for export to special markets.

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